How ABS works?


Many of today’s cars are equipped with the ABS system. In this article, let’s break down how to properly use this system, what types it comes in, and what advantages and disadvantages it has.

All modern motorists have heard about the ABS system. It is hard to argue that it has extremely useful functions and saves lives. Let’s take a closer look at how the ABS system works and what it is. If your car doesn’t work, not only ABS, but everything else as well, then turn it in for recycling:

What is ABS

ABS stands for “antilock braking system”. It is a sophisticated electronic-mechanical technology that keeps the car from going skidding (not driving, but sliding). It is bad weather outside, asphalt is in snow or wet – these are the cases, when braking, the driver unintentionally blocks the wheels. Locking the wheels is dangerous, because of it increases the braking distance, the car skids. When the front wheels are blocked, the car does not respond to steering commands (does not turn). It leads to a serious accident.

The first reflex of the driver in a dangerous situation is to brake and stop immediately. He begins to press hard on the brake pedal. If the car is not equipped with ABS, the wheels will be blocked, the car will go skidding. The anti-lock braking system prevents this from happening.

Design and operation of ABS

ABS consists of elements:

Sensors that give data on the speed of each of the four wheels. Installed on the wheel, less often on the differential.

A computer that processes the information, transmitting the signals to the main unit

Electronic unit cooperating with brake mechanics

Actuating components (valves, pump)

Action of the system is characterized by the ABS sensor transmits the data on the blocking of the wheel to the computer, which decides to send data to the unit. From the main unit begins to send signals to start a cycle of periodic increase/decrease the pressure of the brake fluid. The wheel cannot change speed abruptly and brakes equally with the car, in a position that is borderline with lockup. In this position, braking is most effective and the control of the car remains under the control of the driver. When the anti-lock braking system engages, the driver feels a slight kick in the brake pedal. This reaction is normal ABS operation. The system delivers brake impulses quickly, which is why this effect occurs. The mechanism is triggered when the brake pedal is depressed and if at least one wheel is ready to lock.

Remember, when emergency braking with ABS, press the brake pedal all the way down. Many people think this is wrong and brake on their own with short intermittent strokes. ABS does it for you. The system has the ability to do 12 pulses per second, a professional driver max 8. If you start braking with intermittent movements, you will interfere with the mechanism, and your braking distance will increase.

ABS is not a panacea, it is a mechanism with disadvantages:

Efficiency decreases on uneven, different road surfaces (no asphalt, gravel road, alternating snow, asphalt).

ABS does not work at speeds less than 7 km/h, driving downhill.

During emergency braking, ABS may not work correctly, there is no guarantee that the car will remain steerable. Remember that it is an auxiliary system that works differently on different types of road surfaces and in different weather conditions.

Types of ABS

There are several types of ABS systems:

Single Channel. The system controls four wheels at once. There are two valves, an inlet valve and an outlet valve. Controls wheels of driving axle.

Dual channel. The wheels of the right and left axle are controlled independently.

Three-channel. One channel controls rear axle, front wheels are controlled separately.

Four-channel. Each wheel is controlled separately, with a sensor installed on all four wheels.

ABS systems are installed on different types of motor vehicles, so all four types are widespread.

To summarize, the use of ABS system has peculiarities. When emergency braking – press the brake pedal all the way, do not be frightened by the feeling of kicking in the pedal. Take into account that on a different road surface ABS can work ineffectively, only aggravate the situation. In general, the use of ABS reduces the number of accidents, but do not rely only on it – remember the need to respect the distance and a reasonable speed limit on the road.

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